机床夹具的作用 Functions of jigs and fixtures

2010-09-05 15:29:52 作者:huright 来源: 浏览次数:0

一、机床夹具的作用  Functions of jigs and fixtures
(1)保证加工精度 用机床夹具装夹工件,能准确确定工件与刀具、机床之间的相对位置关系,可以保证加工精度。
Insure machining accuracy
(2)提高生产效率 机床夹具能快速地将工件定位和夹紧,可以减少辅助时间,提高生产效率。
Improve productivity
(3)减轻劳动强度 机床夹具采用机械、气动、液动夹紧装置,可以减轻工人的劳动强度。
Lighten intensity of work
(4)扩大机床的工艺范围 利用机床夹具,能扩大机床的加工范围,例如,在车床或钻床上使用镗模可以代替镗床镗孔,使车床、钻床具有镗床的功能。
Enlarge technological fields of machine tool
二、机床夹具的分类  Types of jigs and fixtures
1.按夹具的应用范围分类
Classifying according to application fields of jigs and fixtures
(1)通用夹具例如,车床用的三爪卡盘和四爪卡盘,铣床用的平口钳及分度头等。
(1)Universal jigs and fixtures   Universal jigs and fixtures refer to the jigs whose structure has been standardized and application fields are larger, such as three-jaw chuck and parallel vice etc
(2)专用机床夹具 专用机床夹具是针对某一工件的某道工序专门设计制造的夹具。专用机床夹具适于在产品相对稳定、产量较大的场合应用。
(2) Jigs and fixtures of special purpose machine   Jigs and fixtures of special purpose machine are specially designed for a certain process.
(3)组合夹具 组合夹具是用一套预先制造好的标准元件和合件组装而成的夹具。组合夹具结构灵活多变,设计和组装周期短,夹具零部件能长期重复使用,适于在多品种单件小批生产或新产品试制等场合应用。
(3)Combination jigs and fixtures   Combination jigs and fixtures are assembled from stand parts and resultant parts manufactured in advance.
(4)成组夹具 成组夹具是在采用成组加工时,为每个零件组设计制造的夹具,当改换加工同组内另一种零件时,只需调整或更换夹具上的个别元件,即可进行加工。成组夹具适于在多品种、中小批生产中应用。
(4)Group jigs and fixtures    Group jigs and fixtures adopt group machining, and the jigs and fixtures are manufactured for every group of part. When machining another part in the same group, only very few parts need to be replaced.
(5)随行夹具 它是一种在自动线上使用的移动式夹具,随行夹具是一种始终随工件一起沿着自动线移动的夹具。
(5)Follow-up jigs and fixtures  They are mobile jigs and fixtures used on the automatic line. Follow-up fixture is a kind of fixture that moves along automatic line appompanied by workpiece from beginning to end.
2.按使用机床类型分类
2 Classifying according to types of machine tools used in machining
机床类型不同,夹具结构各异,由此可将夹具分为车床夹具、钻床夹具、铣床夹具、镗床夹具、磨床夹具和组合机床夹具等类型。
According to the types of machine tools used in machining, jigs and fixtures can be classified as lathe fixtures, dill jigs, fixtures of milling machine, boring jigs, fixtures of grinding machine and auxiliaries of modular machine.
3.按夹具动力源分类
3.Classifying according to power sources of jigs and fixtures
按夹具所用夹紧动力源,可将夹具分为手动夹紧夹具、气动夹紧夹具、液压夹紧夹具、气液联动夹紧夹具、电磁夹具、真空夹具等。
According to power sources of jigs and fixtures,manual jigs and fixtures,pneumatic jigs and fixtures,hydraulic jigs and fixtures, pneumatic hydraulic jigs and fixtures,electromagnetic jigs and fixtures and vacuum jigs and fixtures etc.
  三、专用机床夹具的组成  Components of jigs and fixtures of special purpose machine
夹具一般由下列元件或装置组成:
(1)定位元件 定位元件是用来确定工件正确位置的元件。被加工工件的定位基面与夹具定位元件直接接触或相配合。
Locating element: Locating element is used to determine the proper position of workpiece. Location datum surface of the workpiece directly contact or match workpiece.
(2)夹紧装置  夹紧装置是使工件在外力作用下仍能保持其正确定位位置的装置。
2.Clamping device: Clamping device is used to keep the proper position of the workpiece constant by acting forces on workpiece.
(3)对刀元件、导向元件 对刀元件、导向元件是指夹具中用于确定(或引导)刀具相对于夹具定位元件具有正确位置关系的元件,例如钻套、镗套、对刀块等。
3.Elements for aligning tool and duiding elements: Elements for aligning tool and duiding elements are used to determine (or guide) relative proper position between cutting tool andlocating elements of jigs and fixtures.
(4)连接元件 夹具连接元件是指用于确定夹具在机床上具有正确位置并与之连接的元件,例如安装在铣床夹具底面上的定位键等。
4.Connecting elements: Connecting elements refer to the elements that determine proper position of jigs and fixtures on machine tool and connect with them.For example, locating key assembled on the bottom surface of fixtures of milling machine.
(5)其它元件及装置 根据加工要求,有些夹具尚需设置分度转位装置、靠模装置、工件抬起装置和辅助支承等装置。
5.Other elements and devices: According to requirements of machining, index device,template device,workpiece lift device and auxiliary datum device etc. need to be set up for some jigs and fixtures.
(6)夹具体 夹具体是用于连接夹具元件和有关装置使之成为一个整体的基础件,夹具通过夹具体与机床连接。
6.Body of jigs and fixtures: Body of jigs and fixtures is the foundation part is used to connect every element and related device to make the jigs and fixtures become a whole.
定位元件、夹紧装置和夹具体是夹具的基本组成部分,其它部分可根据需要设置。

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